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== Distribution ==
 
== Distribution ==
While anime had entered markets beyond Japan in the 1960s, it grew as a major cultural export during its market expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. The anime market for the United States alone is "worth approximately $4.35 billion, according to the Japan External Trade Organization".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118851157811713921.html?mod=googlenews_wsj|title=Manga Mania|date=2007-08-31|accessdate=2007-08-31|work=Bianca Bosker (Wall Street Journal)}}</ref> Anime has also been a commercial success in Asia, Europe and Latin America, where anime has become even more mainstream than in the United States. For example, the ''[[Saint Seiya]]'' video game was released in Europe due to the popularity of the show even years after the series has been off-air.
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{{seealso|Anime licensing}}
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While anime had entered markets beyond Japan in the 1960s, it grew as a major cultural export during its market expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. The anime market for the United States alone is "worth approximately $4.35 billion, according to the [[Japan External Trade Organization]]".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118851157811713921.html?mod=googlenews_wsj|title=Manga Mania|date=2007-08-31|accessdate=2007-08-31|work=Bianca Bosker (Wall Street Journal)}}</ref> Anime has also been a commercial success in Asia, Europe and Latin America, where anime has become even more mainstream than in the United States. For example, the ''[[Saint Seiya]]'' video game was released in Europe due to the popularity of the show even years after the series has been off-air.
   
Anime distribution companies handled the licensing and distribution of anime beyond Japan. Licensed anime is modified by distributors through dubbing into the language of the country and adding language subtitles to the Japanese language track. Using a similar [[Wikipedia:Regional lockout|global distribution pattern]] as [[Wikipedia:Hollywood, Los Angeles, California|Hollywood]], the world is divided into five regions.
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Anime distribution companies handled the [[Anime industry|licensing and distribution]] of anime beyond Japan. Licensed anime is modified by distributors through [[dubbing]] into the language of the country and adding language subtitles to the Japanese language track. Using a similar [[Wikipedia:Regional lockout|global distribution pattern]] as [[Wikipedia:Hollywood, Los Angeles, California|Hollywood]], the world is divided into [[Anime industry|five regions]].
   
Some [[Wikipedia:Re-edited film|editing]] of cultural references may occur to better follow the references of the non-Japanese culture.<ref>[http://w3.salemstate.edu/~poehlkers/Emerson/Pokemon.html Pokemon Case Study<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Certain companies may remove any objectionable content, complying with domestic law. This editing process was far more prevalent in the past (e.g. ''Robotech''), but its use has declined because of the demand for anime in its original form. This "light touch" approach to localization has favored viewers formerly unfamiliar with anime. The use of such methods is evident by the success of ''[[Naruto]]'' and Cartoon Network's Adult Swim programming block, both of which employ minor edits.
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Some [[Wikipedia:Re-edited film|editing]] of cultural references may occur to better follow the references of the non-Japanese culture.<ref>[http://w3.salemstate.edu/~poehlkers/Emerson/Pokemon.html Pokemon Case Study<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Certain companies may remove any objectionable content, complying with domestic law. This editing process was far more prevalent in the past (e.g. ''[[Robotech]]''), but its use has declined because of the demand for anime in its original form. This "light touch" approach to localization has favored viewers formerly unfamiliar with anime. The use of such methods is evident by the success of ''[[Naruto]]'' and [[Cartoon Network]]'s [[Adult Swim]] programming block, both of which employ minor edits.{{Fact|date=August 2007}}
   
With the advent of [[Wikipedia:DVD|DVD]], it became possible to include multiple language tracks into a simple product. This was not the case with [[Wikipedia:VHS|VHS cassette]], in which separate VHS media were used and with each VHS cassette priced the same as a single DVD. The "light touch" approach also applies to DVD releases as they often include both the dubbed audio and the original Japanese audio with subtitles, typically unedited. Anime edited for television is usually released on DVD "uncut", with all scenes intact.
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With the advent of [[Wikipedia:DVD|DVD]], it became possible to include multiple language tracks into a simple product. This was not the case with [[Wikipedia:VHS|VHS cassette]], in which separate VHS media were used and with each VHS cassette priced the same as a single DVD. The "light touch" approach also applies to DVD releases as they often include both the dubbed audio and the original Japanese audio with [[subtitles]], typically unedited. Anime edited for television is usually released on DVD "uncut", with all scenes intact.
   
TV networks regularly broadcast anime programming. In Japan, major national TV networks, such as [[TV Tokyo]] broadcast anime regularly. Smaller regional stations broadcast anime under the UHF. In the United States, cable TV channels such as Cartoon Network, Disney, Sci-Fi, and others dedicate some of their timeslots to anime. Some, such as the Anime Network and the FUNimation, specifically show anime. Sony-based [[Animax]] and Disney's Jetix channel broadcast anime within many countries in the world. AnimeCentral solely broadcasts anime in the UK.
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TV networks regularly broadcast anime programming. In Japan, major national TV networks, such as [[TV Tokyo]] broadcast anime regularly. Smaller regional stations broadcast anime under the [[UHF]]. In the United States, cable TV channels such as [[Cartoon Network]], [[Disney]], [[Sci Fi Channel|Sci-Fi]], and others dedicate some of their timeslots to anime. Some, such as the [[Anime Network]] and the [[FUNimation Channel]], specifically show anime. [[Sony]]-based [[Animax]] and Disney's [[Jetix]] channel broadcast anime within many countries in the world. [[AnimeCentral]] solely broadcasts anime in the UK.
   
Although it violates copyright laws in many countries, some fans add subtitles to anime on their own. These are distributed as [[fansub]]s. The ethical implications of producing, distributing, or watching fansubs are topics of much controversy even when fansub groups do not profit from their activities. Once the series has been licensed outside of Japan, fansub groups often cease distribution of their work. In one case, Media Factory requested that no fansubs of their material be made, which was respected by the fansub community.<ref>{{cite web|title=Anxious times in the cartoon underground|work=CNet|url=http://news.cnet.com/Anxious-times-in-the-cartoon-underground/2100-1026_3-5557177.html | accessdate=2007-09-06|date=2005-02-01}}</ref> In another instance, Bandai specifically thanked fansubbers for their role in helping to make ''The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya'' popular in the English speaking world.<ref>{{cite web | title=Adventures of the ASOS Brigade Episode 00: Made by Fans for Fans | work= | url=http://asosbrigade.com/ | accessdate=2006-12-23}}</ref>
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Although it violates [[copyright]] laws in many countries, some fans add subtitles to anime on their own. These are distributed as [[fansub]]s. The ethical implications of producing, distributing, or watching fansubs are topics of much controversy even when fansub groups do not profit from their activities. Once the series has been licensed outside of Japan, fansub groups often cease distribution of their work. In one case, [[Media Factory]] requested that no fansubs of their material be made, which was respected by the fansub community.<ref>{{cite web|title=Anxious times in the cartoon underground|work=CNet|url=http://news.cnet.com/Anxious-times-in-the-cartoon-underground/2100-1026_3-5557177.html | accessdate=2007-09-06|date=2005-02-01}}</ref> In another instance, Bandai specifically thanked fansubbers for their role in helping to make ''The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya'' popular in the English speaking world.<ref>{{cite web | title=Adventures of the ASOS Brigade Episode 00: Made by Fans for Fans | work= | url=http://asosbrigade.com/ | accessdate=2006-12-23}}</ref>
   
 
The Internet has played a significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan. Prior to the 1990s, anime had limited exposure beyond Japan's borders. Coincidentally, as the popularity of the Internet grew, so did interest in anime. Much of the fandom of anime grew through the Internet. The combination of internet communities and increasing amounts of anime material, from video to images, helped spur the growth of fandom.<ref name="anime-internet">{{cite web|url=http://comipress.com/article/2006/07/20/489|title=100 Questions About Anime & Manga Overseas|date=2006-07-20|accessdate=2007-08-23|work=Comipress}}</ref> As the Internet gained more widespread use, Internet advertising revenues grew from 1.6 billion yen to over 180 billion yen between 1995 and 2005.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.j-cast.com/2005/12/21000171.html|title=Free Anime: Providers Bear Losses to Build Business|date=2005-12-21|accessdate=2007-08-27|work=J-Cast Business News}}</ref>
 
The Internet has played a significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan. Prior to the 1990s, anime had limited exposure beyond Japan's borders. Coincidentally, as the popularity of the Internet grew, so did interest in anime. Much of the fandom of anime grew through the Internet. The combination of internet communities and increasing amounts of anime material, from video to images, helped spur the growth of fandom.<ref name="anime-internet">{{cite web|url=http://comipress.com/article/2006/07/20/489|title=100 Questions About Anime & Manga Overseas|date=2006-07-20|accessdate=2007-08-23|work=Comipress}}</ref> As the Internet gained more widespread use, Internet advertising revenues grew from 1.6 billion yen to over 180 billion yen between 1995 and 2005.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.j-cast.com/2005/12/21000171.html|title=Free Anime: Providers Bear Losses to Build Business|date=2005-12-21|accessdate=2007-08-27|work=J-Cast Business News}}</ref>
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