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== History ==
 
== History ==
 
Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia.<ref name="manga!">{{cite book |last=Schodt |first=Frederik L. | title=Manga! Manga!: The World of Japanese Comics |publisher=[[Kodansha]] International |date=Reprint edition (August 18, 1997) |location =ToKyo, Japan |isbn=ISBN 0-87011-752-1 }}</ref>
 
Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia.<ref name="manga!">{{cite book |last=Schodt |first=Frederik L. | title=Manga! Manga!: The World of Japanese Comics |publisher=[[Kodansha]] International |date=Reprint edition (August 18, 1997) |location =ToKyo, Japan |isbn=ISBN 0-87011-752-1 }}</ref>
The oldest known anime in existence was screened in 1917 - a two minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat.<ref>[http://imprinttalk.com/?p=1557 "Japan’s oldest animation films,"] ''ImprintTALK.'' March 31, 2008; {{cite web | url = http://www.hdrjapan.com/japan/japan-news/historic-91%11year%11old-anime-discovered-in-osaka// | title = Historic 91-year-old anime discovered in Osaka | publisher = HDR Japan | date = 2008-03-30 | accessdate = 2008-05-12}}</ref> The first talkie anime was ''Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka'', released in 1933.<ref name="animeguide">{{cite book |title=Anime: A Guide to Japanese Animation (1958-1988) |last=Baricordi |first=Andrea |coauthors=de Giovanni, Massimiliano; Pietroni, Andrea; Rossi, Barbara; Tunesi, Sabrina |date=December 2000 |publisher=[[Protoculture Inc.]] |location=Montreal, Quebec, [[Canada]] |isbn=2-9805759-0-9 |page= 12}}</ref><ref name="kodanasha1993">{{cite book |title=Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia |year=1993 |publisher=[[Kodansha]] |location=Tokyo, Japan |isbn=9784062064897 |page= |pages= }}</ref>
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The oldest known anime in existence was screened in 1917 - a two minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat.<ref>[http://imprinttalk.com/?p=1557 "Japan’s oldest animation films,"] ''ImprintTALK.'' March 31, 2008; {{cite web | url = http://www.hdrjapan.com/japan/japan-news/historic-91%11year%11old-anime-discovered-in-osaka// | title = Historic 91-year-old anime discovered in Osaka | publisher = HDR Japan | date = 2008-03-30 | accessdate = 2008-05-12}}</ref> The first talkie anime was ''Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka'', released in 1933.<ref name="animeguide">{{cite book |title=Anime: A Guide to Japanese Animation (1958-1988) |last=Baricordi |first=Andrea |coauthors=de Giovanni, Massimiliano; Pietroni, Andrea; Rossi, Barbara; Tunesi, Sabrina |date=December 2000 |publisher=[[Protoculture Inc.]] |location=[[Montreal, Quebec]], [[Canada]] |isbn=2-9805759-0-9 |page= 12}}</ref><ref name="kodanasha1993">{{cite book |title=Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia |year=1993 |publisher=[[Kodansha]] |location=[[Tokyo]], [[Japan]] |isbn=9784062064897 |page= |pages= }}</ref>
   
 
By the 1930s, animation became an alternative format of storytelling to the underdeveloped live-action industry in Japan. Unlike in the United States, the live-action industry in Japan remained a small market and suffered from budgeting, location, and casting restrictions. The lack of Western-looking actors, for example, made it next to impossible to shoot films set in Europe, America, or fantasy worlds that do not naturally involve Japan. Animation allowed artists to create any characters and settings.<ref name="manga characters look white">{{cite web|title=Do Manga Characters Look "White"?|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060517194357sh_re_/www.matt-thorn.com/mangagaku/faceoftheother.html <!-- ([[Internet Archive]] backup) --> | dateformat = mdy | accessdate = December 11 2005 }}
 
By the 1930s, animation became an alternative format of storytelling to the underdeveloped live-action industry in Japan. Unlike in the United States, the live-action industry in Japan remained a small market and suffered from budgeting, location, and casting restrictions. The lack of Western-looking actors, for example, made it next to impossible to shoot films set in Europe, America, or fantasy worlds that do not naturally involve Japan. Animation allowed artists to create any characters and settings.<ref name="manga characters look white">{{cite web|title=Do Manga Characters Look "White"?|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060517194357sh_re_/www.matt-thorn.com/mangagaku/faceoftheother.html <!-- ([[Internet Archive]] backup) --> | dateformat = mdy | accessdate = December 11 2005 }}
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=== Character design ===
 
=== Character design ===
Body proportions emulated in anime come from the human anatomy. The height of the head is considered as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary as long as the remainder of the body remains proportional. Most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall, and extreme heights are set around nine heads tall.<ref name="headheight">{{cite web|url=http://animeworld.com/howtodraw/bodies1.html|title=Body Proportion|accessdate=2007-08-16|work=Akemi's Anime World}}</ref>
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Body proportions emulated in anime come from proportions of the human body. The height of the head is considered as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary as long as the remainder of the body remains proportional. Most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall, and extreme heights are set around nine heads tall.<ref name="headheight">{{cite web|url=http://animeworld.com/howtodraw/bodies1.html|title=Body Proportion|accessdate=2007-08-16|work=Akemi's Anime World}}</ref>
   
 
Variations to proportion can be modded. Super deformed characters feature a non-proportionally small body compared to the head. Sometimes specific body parts, like legs, are shortened or elongated for added emphasis. Mostly super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. Some anime works like ''[[Crayon Shin-chan]]'' completely disregard these proportions. It is enough such that it resembles a Western cartoon. For exaggeration, certain body features are increased in proportion.<ref name="headheight" />
 
Variations to proportion can be modded. Super deformed characters feature a non-proportionally small body compared to the head. Sometimes specific body parts, like legs, are shortened or elongated for added emphasis. Mostly super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. Some anime works like ''[[Crayon Shin-chan]]'' completely disregard these proportions. It is enough such that it resembles a Western cartoon. For exaggeration, certain body features are increased in proportion.<ref name="headheight" />
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However, not all anime have large eyes. For example, some of the work of Hayao Miyazaki and Toshiro Kawamoto are known for not having realistically proportioned eyes, as well as realistic hair colors on their characters.<ref name="companion">{{cite book |last=Poitras |first=Gilles | title=Anime Companion |publisher=Stone Bridge Press |year=1998 |location =Berkeley, California |isbn=ISBN 1-880656-32-9 }}</ref> In addition many other productions also have been known to use smaller eyes. This design tends to have more resemblance to traditional Japanese art. Some characters have even smaller eyes, where simple black dots are used.
 
However, not all anime have large eyes. For example, some of the work of Hayao Miyazaki and Toshiro Kawamoto are known for not having realistically proportioned eyes, as well as realistic hair colors on their characters.<ref name="companion">{{cite book |last=Poitras |first=Gilles | title=Anime Companion |publisher=Stone Bridge Press |year=1998 |location =Berkeley, California |isbn=ISBN 1-880656-32-9 }}</ref> In addition many other productions also have been known to use smaller eyes. This design tends to have more resemblance to traditional Japanese art. Some characters have even smaller eyes, where simple black dots are used.
   
Anime characters may employ a wide variety of facial expressions to denote moods and thoughts.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mangatutorials.com/tut/expressions.htm|title=Manga Tutorials: Emotional Expressions|accessdate=2008-08-22|work=Rio}}</ref> These techniques are often different in form than their counterparts in western animation.
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Anime characters may employ wide variety of facial expressions to denote moods and thoughts.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mangatutorials.com/tut/expressions.htm|title=Manga Tutorials: Emotional Expressions|accessdate=2008-08-22|work=Rio}}</ref> These techniques are often different in form than their counterparts in western animation.
   
 
There are a number of other stylistic elements that are common to conventional anime as well, but more often used in comedies. Characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "face fault", in which they display an extremely exaggerated expression. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stressmark" effect, where lines representing bulging veins will appear on their forehead. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and strike someone with it, leading to the concept of Hammerspace and cartoon physics. Male characters will develop a bloody nose around their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal, based on an old wives' tale).<ref name="bloody">{{cite web|url=http://www.umich.edu/~anime/info_emotions.html|title=Emotional Iconography in Animae|author=University of Michigan Animae Project|date=Current}}</ref> Embarrassed characters either produce a massive sweat-drop (which has become one of the most widely recognized motifs of conventional anime) or produce a visibly red blush or set of parallel (sometimes squiggly) lines beneath the eyes, especially as a manifestation of repressed romantic feelings. Some anime, usually with political plots and other more serious subject matters, have abandoned the use of these techniques.
 
There are a number of other stylistic elements that are common to conventional anime as well, but more often used in comedies. Characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "face fault", in which they display an extremely exaggerated expression. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stressmark" effect, where lines representing bulging veins will appear on their forehead. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and strike someone with it, leading to the concept of Hammerspace and cartoon physics. Male characters will develop a bloody nose around their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal, based on an old wives' tale).<ref name="bloody">{{cite web|url=http://www.umich.edu/~anime/info_emotions.html|title=Emotional Iconography in Animae|author=University of Michigan Animae Project|date=Current}}</ref> Embarrassed characters either produce a massive sweat-drop (which has become one of the most widely recognized motifs of conventional anime) or produce a visibly red blush or set of parallel (sometimes squiggly) lines beneath the eyes, especially as a manifestation of repressed romantic feelings. Some anime, usually with political plots and other more serious subject matters, have abandoned the use of these techniques.
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